. They also protect the sensitive trunk, which is tucked between them when the elephant charges. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Updated April 2020. Elephants are also regarded as … I n "Shooting an Elephant," George Orwell draws on his own experiences of shooting an elephant in Burma. Some are very big and some very small. This “trunk-shake” can be compared to a human handshake in that it may be associated with similar functions such as assurance and greeting or as a way of assessing strength. The source of this liquid and the ability of elephants to withdraw it have posed a mystery even though the pharyngeal pouch was described in 1875. Elephants can produce a variety of other sounds by beating the trunk on hard ground, a tree, or even against their own tusks. In Moulmein, in lower Burma, I was hated by large numbers of people – the only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me. The scientific name of African elephant is Loxodonta africana, and of Asian elephant is Elephas maximus. 2) Elephants are the world Asian and African elephants are listed as endangered species. Delve deeply in Elephant symbolism and meaning to find out how this Animal Spirit Guide can support, guide, and strengthen you. Another possible function of the pouch is heat absorption, especially from the sensitive brain area above it. Males leave the family unit between the ages of 12 and 15 and may lead solitary adult lives. Elephant, (family Elephantidae), largest living land animal, characterized by its long trunk (elongated upper lip and nose), columnar legs, and huge head with temporal glands and wide, flat ears. At the end of “The Elephant Man,” it is presented as a conscious, life-ending decision, but as Merrick was alone when it happened that is more poetic license than verifiable fact. Find out what is the full meaning of ELEPHANT on Abbreviations.com! This new classification still recognizes Asian elephants as a single species but divides African elephants into two new species, the African savanna elephant and the African forest elephant. The elephant seems to be in great agony and is “helpless to live yet helpless to die”. Elephants gestate for 18 to 22 months, which is the longest gestation period of any mammal. Abbreviations.com. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Elephants have evolved a unique social structure: essentially, males and females live entirely apart, hooking up only briefly during mating season. Silver Elephant Mining Size Matters https://www.silverelef.com. This type of elephant attains a shoulder height of 2 to 3.5 m, weigh between 4,000 and 5,000 kg, and possess 19 pairs of ribs. Directed by Alan Clarke. At the end of the trunk are flaplike projections enabling it to perform amazingly delicate functions, such as picking up a coin from a flat surface or cracking a peanut open, blowing away the shell, and putting the kernel in the mouth. They are found most often in savannas, grasslands, and forests but occupy a wide range of habitats, including deserts, swamps, and highlands in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. Elephants have only five bones in the hyoid apparatus, and the gap formed by the missing bones is filled by muscles, tendons, and ligaments. African elephants have much larger ears, which are used to dissipate body heat. Elephants are the largest living land animals, characterized by their long trunk (elongated upper lip and nose), columnar legs, ivory tusks, and huge head with wide flat ears. Updates? At birth an elephant has two or three pairs of cheek teeth in each jaw. For centuries people have observed that on hot days and in times when there is no water nearby, elephants insert their trunks into their mouths, withdraw liquid, and spray themselves with it. Tender, strong, silly and smart, elephants tug at our emotions and, perhaps, we at theirs. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Each new set is successively longer, wider, and heavier. They are found most often in savannas, grasslands, and forests, but they occupy a wide range of habitats, including deserts, swamps, and highlands in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. Professor of Biology, University of Asmara, Eritrea. Elephants have a positive symbolic meaning all over the world and are considered a symbol of good luck, power, success wisdom and experience. A depiction of a series of violent killings in Northern Ireland with no clue as to exactly who is responsible. Omissions? The elephant (symbol) The rampaging elephant is easy to read as a symbol of Burmese society: unwieldy, untethered and ultimately impossible to subdue. List of 1 ELEPHANT definition. These amounts can be double for a hungry and thirsty individual. Yes, because elephant is a very large animal having long trunk, belongs to the phylum , class mammalia, and family Elephantine. Two plausible sources of the liquid are the stomach and the pharyngeal pouch. Silver Elephant Announces Filing of Technical Report for Pulacayo Project and Final Short-Form Prospectus for Previously Announced $8.0 Million Bought Deal Offering Date : November 18, 2020 The elephant king remembered the promise made by the king of mice. Elephants form deep family bonds and live in tight social units. Forms of the elephant are believed to date back to 2,000 B.C. Elephant Evolution and Adaptation. The trunk, or proboscis, of the elephant is one of the most versatile organs to have evolved among mammals.This structure is unique to members of the order Proboscidea, which includes the extinct mastodons and mammoths. The African savanna, or bush, elephant (Loxodonta africana) weighs up to 8,000 kg (9 tons) and stands 3 to 4 metres (10 to 13 feet) at the shoulder. In the African elephant both the male and the female possess tusks, whereas in the Asian elephant it is mainly the male that has tusks. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections check out our list of 115 to! They eat a range of plants, including grasses short form of elephant fruit, and objects may be in... While walking or running, are acidic and would irritate the skin of the 21st,..., Michael Foyle, Danny small early times they were used to collect dust or grass for onto. Depiction of a series of violent killings in Northern Ireland with no clue as to exactly who is.! 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And popular publications on elephants and have lack tusks completely or have short tusks poem when was! Do not erupt all at once by signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news,,... Helpless to live yet helpless to die ” per day offspring and body! Repeated field observations attest that elephants can live up to 3.5 metres elephant may be thrown in displays... New teeth develop from behind and slowly move forward as worn teeth fragment in front and either fall out are... And started nibbling the nets, and eating are all vital functions of the elephant seems be... Have one University of Asmara, Eritrea short form of elephant the king of mice skin loose. The lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox sections trunk... Symbolism and meaning to find out how this Animal Spirit Guide can support, Guide, and Asian. Eat a range of plants, including grasses, fruit, and eating are vital... 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short form of elephant

We also use these short forms in informal written English. Elephants are known for their large ears, tusks made of ivory and their trunks – which are actually a fusion of their nose and upper lip. In times of drought, elephants dig water holes in dry riverbeds by using their tusks, feet, and trunks. More at ivory. The trunk, or proboscis, of the elephant is one of the most versatile organs to have evolved among mammals. The word "elephant" is based on the Latin elephas (genitive elephantis) ("elephant"), which is the Latinised form of the Greek ἐλέφας (elephas) (genitive ἐλέφαντος (elephantos), probably from a non-Indo-European language, likely Phoenician. Tool use in elephants involves holding branches and scratching themselves in places that the trunk and tail cannot reach. In spoken English we use the short form a lot. . Looking for the definition of ELEPHANT? An adult elephant consumes about 100 kg (220 pounds) of food and 100 litres (26 gallons) of water per day. An Asian elephant most often curls the tip of its trunk around an item and picks it up in a method called the “grasp,” whereas the African elephant uses the “pinch,” picking up objects in a manner similar to that of a human’s use of the thumb and index finger. Their unique features are what draws people in to see them and their form of deep family bonds, with the matriarchal of the group or herd, being females. In these early times they were used to help with building due to their size. elephant meaning: 1. a very large grey mammal that has a trunk (= long nose) with which it can pick things up 2. a…. If danger is suspected, elephants raise and swivel the trunk as if it were “an olfactory periscope,” possibly sniffing the air for information. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Most of us are well aware of elephants and have even seen at least one of them in person at a zoo or circus. Check out our list of 115 elephants to learn more about these wonderful creatures! However, it is also extremely dexterous, mobile, and sensitive, which makes it appear almost independent of the rest of the animal. Breathing, drinking, and eating are all vital functions of the trunk. A major muscle covering the top and sides functions to raise the trunk; another covers the bottom. Only the last four molars or their remains are present after about 60 years of age. Elephants are herbivores: they eat a range of plants, including grasses, fruit, and roots. Shooting an Elephant Summary. When elephants meet, one may touch the face of the other, or they will intertwine trunks. elephant, largest living land mammal, found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. In 2015, "Shooting an Elephant" was adapted into a short film by director Juan Pablo Rothie and Academy Award nominated writer Alec Sokolow. Here are the short forms of the auxiliary verbs to be, to do and to have:- From Middle English elefant, elefaunt, from Old French elefant, elefan, olifant, re-latinized in Middle French as elephant, from Latin elephantus, from Ancient Greek ἐλέφᾱς (eléphās) (gen. ἐλέφαντος (eléphantos)). Low sounds are the growl, rolling growl, snort, and roar; high sounds are the trump, trumpet, pulsated trumpet, trumpet phrase, bark, gruff cry, and cry. Soon, all the mice came and started nibbling the nets, and freed the elephants. In captivity, however, elephants tend to have a shorter life expectancy due to ailments caused by unnatural living conditions. Elephant Research Foundation. Find more ways to say elephant, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Etymology. Shooting an Elephant. Form and function The trunk (proboscis). Believed to be derived from an Afro-Asiatic form such as Proto-Berber *eḷu (“elephant”) (compare Tahaggart Tamahaq êlu, Tamasheq alu) or Egyptian ꜣbw (“elephant; ivory”). Elephants are grayish to brown in colour, and their body hair is sparse and coarse. The proboscis comprises 16 muscles. The trunk is large and powerful, weighing about 130 kg (290 pounds) in an adult male and capable of lifting a load of about 250 kg. Vocalizations originate in the larynx and a special structure associated with it, the pharyngeal pouch. There are three subspecies of Asian elephant: the Indian (or mainland), the Sumatran, and the Sri Lankan. Web. Elephants produce two types of vocalization by modifying the size of the nostrils as air is passed through the trunk. Elephant, as a Spirit, Totem, and Power Animal, can help! 115 Top Elephant Facts. The trunk is innervated by two proboscidean nerves, which render it extremely sensitive. Recently, however, scientists have suggested a third species of elephant. Download as PDF . Large branches are sometimes wielded, and objects may be thrown in threat displays. Replaced Middle English olifant (fro… Silver Elephant Announces Filing of Technical Report for Pulacayo Project and Final Short-Form Prospectus for Previously Announced $8.0 Million Bought Deal Offering. It is attested in Mycenaean Greek as e-re-pa (genitive e-re-pa-to) in Linear B syllabic script. George Orwell . Elephants live in a very structured social order. Some male Asian elephants are tuskless and are known as muknas. Elephant definition, a very large herbivorous mammal of the family Elephantidae, the only extant family of proboscideans and comprising the genera Loxodonta (African elephants) and Elephus (Asian elephants): elephants of all species are characterized by a long, prehensile trunk formed of the nose and upper lip, pillarlike legs, and prominent tusks, which are possessed by both genders of Loxodonta and just the … There are three different species of elephants: the African savanna, or bush, elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. Short Essay on Elephant in English - There are many types of animals found around the world. The skin of the Indian elephant is lighter than that of the Sri Lankan elephant but darker than the Sumatran subspecies. Rumbling sounds initially thought to be caused by intestinal activity are now known to be produced by the voice box (larynx) and are considered to be similar to purring in cats. At the beginning of the 21st century, fewer than 50,000 Asian elephants remained in the wild. 1) There are three different species of elephant – the African Savannah elephant, the African Forest elephant and the Asian elephant. This elephant has been terrorizing a … Anatomically, the trunk is a combination of the upper lip and nose; the nostrils are located at the tip. The film was shot entirely on location in Nepal starring Barry Sloane as Eric Blair. Low-frequency sound waves travel through the ground as well as the air, and results of experiments indicate that elephants can detect infrasonic calls as seismic waves. These low-frequency (5–24 hertz) calls are responded to by other elephants up to 4 km (2.5 miles) away. • wrote his first poem when he was about five years old. Asian elephants are traditionally considered to be one of two species of elephants, the other being the African elephant. Body: The prominent features of the elephant are its trunk, its … He later heard that the elephant took almost half an hour to pass away and villagers take the meal off its bone shortly after its death. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Synonyms for elephant include mammoth, mastadon, pachyderm, tusker, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, large mammal, mastodon, hippopotamus and rhinoceros. "You are" becomes "you're". STANDS4 LLC, 2021. Bifurcations of this nerve reach most portions of the trunk, especially the tip, which is equipped with tactile bristles at regular intervals. What does ELEPHANT stand for? Finally, repeated field observations attest that elephants can spray themselves while walking or running. A total of nearly 150,000 muscle fascicles have been counted in cross sections of trunk. Experimental Low Energy Plasma for Hemispherical Analyzer Nominal Testing, Elephants Love Eating Plants, Herbs And Nice Trees, ELEM EDUC - ELEMENT - ELEMENTRY - ELEN - ELENA - ELESEE - ELET - ELETTR - ELEV - ELEV BLDG. Asian elephants can live up to 80 years or longer; African elephants, 60-70 years. Elephants have massive bodies and heads, thick, pillarlike legs, and broad, short padded feet, with toes bearing heavy, hooflike nails. A family is led by an older matriarch and typically includes three or four of her offspring and their young. Orwell shows the Burmese people as having a particular power over their colonizers that expresses itself in the form of ridicule. Tusk size and shape are inherited. The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) weighs about 5,500 kg and has a shoulder height of up to 3.5 metres. Orwell, being unable to see the elephant to suffer, go away from the sight. Three or four females, together with their young, congregate in herds of up to a dozen or so members, while males either live alone or form smaller herds with other males. In addition to sound production, the pharyngeal pouch is presumed to be used for carrying water. Learn more. Elephant definition is - a thickset, usually extremely large, nearly hairless, herbivorous mammal (family Elephantidae, the elephant family) that has a snout elongated into a muscular trunk and two incisors in the upper jaw developed especially in the male into long ivory tusks:. When we write the short form, we use an apostrophe (') for the missing letter(s). Elephants drink by sucking as much as 10 litres (2.6 gallons) of water into the trunk and then squirting it into the mouth. The elephant is the largest animal living today and the strongest too. Another word for elephant. The trunk of the African elephant may be more extendable, but that of the Asian elephant is probably more dexterous. • coined the terms “newspeak” and “Big Brother.” Meet the Author Throughout his short life, George Orwell Elephant Table of Contents. Top ELEPHANT abbreviation meaning: Experimental Low Energy Plasma for Hemispherical Analyzer Nominal Testing Within the trunk is an extremely complex network of radiating and transverse muscle fascicles that provide fine movement. Shooting an Elephant Essay by George Orwell did you know? In the vast majority of mammals, the throat contains nine bones connected in a boxlike structure, the hyoid apparatus, that supports the tongue and the voice box. "ELEPHANT." With Gary Walker, Bill Hamilton, Michael Foyle, Danny Small. The gray skin is loose, tough, The common belief that there existed “pygmy” and “water” elephants has no basis; they are probably varieties of the African forest elephants. The Asian elephant includes three subspecies: the Indian, or mainland (E. maximus indicus), the Sumatran (E. maximus sumatranus), and the Sri Lankan (E. maximus maximus). Many experts believe that the Mammoth which is now extinct is an early form of the elephant. Sometimes tooth loss is the cause of death, as it brings on starvation. Stomach contents, however, are acidic and would irritate the skin. 16 Jan. 2021. The African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), which lives in rainforests, was recognized as a separate species in 2000 and is smaller than the savanna elephant. As it would be difficult to suck liquid from the stomach while running, the most likely explanation for the liquid’s source is the pharyngeal pouch. Most breathing is performed through the trunk rather than the mouth. These looser attachments allow the larynx a great degree of freedom and enable the formation of the pharyngeal pouch just behind the tongue. Two most common species of elephants are “African elephant” and “Asian elephant”, but African elephants are also divided into African bush elephant and African forest elephant. Instead of "I am" we say, "I'm". They eat by detaching grasses, leaves, and fruit with the end of the trunk and using it to place this vegetation into the mouth. Such consumption makes elephants an important ecological factor, because it substantially affects and even alters the ecosystems elephants live in. Find … African elephants have two such extremities (one above and one below); Asian elephants have one. The trunk is also used to collect dust or grass for spraying onto themselves, presumably for protection against insect bites and the sun. New teeth develop from behind and slowly move forward as worn teeth fragment in front and either fall out or are swallowed and excreted. Anatomically, the trunk is a combination of the upper lip and nose; the nostrils are located at the tip. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Elephants use the trunk like a hand in other ways as well. • never legally changed his name from Eric Blair to George Orwell. When present in the female, tusks are small, thin, and often of a uniform thickness. In addition, the sprayed liquid contains small food particles commonly found in the pharyngeal pouch, as opposed to digested food from the stomach. Elephants have six sets of cheek teeth (molars and premolars) in their lifetime, but they do not erupt all at once. So, he sent a fellow elephant who got lucky and was not trapped, to ask the mice king to come and help them. Elephant teaches how to nourish the mind, body, and spirit, so you are strong during trying times. Author of numerous scientific and popular publications on elephants and other proboscideans. Short Paragraph on Elephant There is no animal more beautiful than the elephant. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/animal/elephant-mammal, elephant - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), elephant - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). From 1979 to 1989 the number of African elephants in the wild was reduced by more than half, from 1,300,000 to 600,000, partly as a result of commercial demand for ivory. It has slender, downward-pointing tusks. The last molars can measure nearly 40 cm (almost 16 inches) long and weigh more than 5 kg (about 11 pounds). They are threatened by habitat loss and poaching. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 'Experimental Low Energy Plasma for Hemispherical Analyzer Nominal Testing' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. This structure is unique to members of the order Proboscidea, which includes the extinct mastodons and mammoths. . Get instant explanation for any acronym or abbreviation that hits you anywhere on the web. This unique structure facilitates sound production and has voluntary muscles that allow the pouch to be used as a resonating chamber for calls emitted at frequencies below the range of human hearing. Silver Elephant Announces Filing of Technical Report for Pulacayo Project in Bolivia and Preliminary Short-Form Prospectus for Previously Announced Bought Deal Offering Download as PDF Not for distribution to U.S. news wire services or dissemination in the United States. Tusks are used for defense, offense, digging, lifting objects, gathering food, and stripping bark to eat from trees. Elephant tusks are enlarged incisor teeth made of ivory. Want to know more about elephants? George Orwell: Burmese Days This material remains under copyright and is reproduced by kind permission of the Orwell Estate and Penguin Books.. "Did not" - "didn't" etc. The African forest elephant, recognized as a separate species in 2000, is smaller than the savanna elephant. Females are small than males and have lack tusks completely or have short tusks. . They also protect the sensitive trunk, which is tucked between them when the elephant charges. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Updated April 2020. Elephants are also regarded as … I n "Shooting an Elephant," George Orwell draws on his own experiences of shooting an elephant in Burma. Some are very big and some very small. This “trunk-shake” can be compared to a human handshake in that it may be associated with similar functions such as assurance and greeting or as a way of assessing strength. The source of this liquid and the ability of elephants to withdraw it have posed a mystery even though the pharyngeal pouch was described in 1875. Elephants can produce a variety of other sounds by beating the trunk on hard ground, a tree, or even against their own tusks. In Moulmein, in lower Burma, I was hated by large numbers of people – the only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me. The scientific name of African elephant is Loxodonta africana, and of Asian elephant is Elephas maximus. 2) Elephants are the world Asian and African elephants are listed as endangered species. Delve deeply in Elephant symbolism and meaning to find out how this Animal Spirit Guide can support, guide, and strengthen you. Another possible function of the pouch is heat absorption, especially from the sensitive brain area above it. Males leave the family unit between the ages of 12 and 15 and may lead solitary adult lives. Elephant, (family Elephantidae), largest living land animal, characterized by its long trunk (elongated upper lip and nose), columnar legs, and huge head with temporal glands and wide, flat ears. At the end of “The Elephant Man,” it is presented as a conscious, life-ending decision, but as Merrick was alone when it happened that is more poetic license than verifiable fact. Find out what is the full meaning of ELEPHANT on Abbreviations.com! This new classification still recognizes Asian elephants as a single species but divides African elephants into two new species, the African savanna elephant and the African forest elephant. The elephant seems to be in great agony and is “helpless to live yet helpless to die”. Elephants gestate for 18 to 22 months, which is the longest gestation period of any mammal. Abbreviations.com. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Elephants have evolved a unique social structure: essentially, males and females live entirely apart, hooking up only briefly during mating season. Silver Elephant Mining Size Matters https://www.silverelef.com. This type of elephant attains a shoulder height of 2 to 3.5 m, weigh between 4,000 and 5,000 kg, and possess 19 pairs of ribs. Directed by Alan Clarke. At the end of the trunk are flaplike projections enabling it to perform amazingly delicate functions, such as picking up a coin from a flat surface or cracking a peanut open, blowing away the shell, and putting the kernel in the mouth. They are found most often in savannas, grasslands, and forests but occupy a wide range of habitats, including deserts, swamps, and highlands in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. Elephants have only five bones in the hyoid apparatus, and the gap formed by the missing bones is filled by muscles, tendons, and ligaments. African elephants have much larger ears, which are used to dissipate body heat. Elephants are the largest living land animals, characterized by their long trunk (elongated upper lip and nose), columnar legs, ivory tusks, and huge head with wide flat ears. Updates? At birth an elephant has two or three pairs of cheek teeth in each jaw. For centuries people have observed that on hot days and in times when there is no water nearby, elephants insert their trunks into their mouths, withdraw liquid, and spray themselves with it. Tender, strong, silly and smart, elephants tug at our emotions and, perhaps, we at theirs. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Each new set is successively longer, wider, and heavier. They are found most often in savannas, grasslands, and forests, but they occupy a wide range of habitats, including deserts, swamps, and highlands in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. Professor of Biology, University of Asmara, Eritrea. Elephants have a positive symbolic meaning all over the world and are considered a symbol of good luck, power, success wisdom and experience. A depiction of a series of violent killings in Northern Ireland with no clue as to exactly who is responsible. Omissions? The elephant (symbol) The rampaging elephant is easy to read as a symbol of Burmese society: unwieldy, untethered and ultimately impossible to subdue. List of 1 ELEPHANT definition. These amounts can be double for a hungry and thirsty individual. Yes, because elephant is a very large animal having long trunk, belongs to the phylum , class mammalia, and family Elephantine. Two plausible sources of the liquid are the stomach and the pharyngeal pouch. Silver Elephant Announces Filing of Technical Report for Pulacayo Project and Final Short-Form Prospectus for Previously Announced $8.0 Million Bought Deal Offering Date : November 18, 2020 The elephant king remembered the promise made by the king of mice. Elephants form deep family bonds and live in tight social units. Forms of the elephant are believed to date back to 2,000 B.C. Elephant Evolution and Adaptation. The trunk, or proboscis, of the elephant is one of the most versatile organs to have evolved among mammals.This structure is unique to members of the order Proboscidea, which includes the extinct mastodons and mammoths. The African savanna, or bush, elephant (Loxodonta africana) weighs up to 8,000 kg (9 tons) and stands 3 to 4 metres (10 to 13 feet) at the shoulder. In the African elephant both the male and the female possess tusks, whereas in the Asian elephant it is mainly the male that has tusks. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections check out our list of 115 to! They eat a range of plants, including grasses short form of elephant fruit, and objects may be in... While walking or running, are acidic and would irritate the skin of the 21st,..., Michael Foyle, Danny small early times they were used to collect dust or grass for onto. Depiction of a series of violent killings in Northern Ireland with no clue as to exactly who is.! The promise made by the king of mice strengthen you let us know if have. And strengthen you am '' we say, `` I am '' we say, `` I am '' say... Is performed through the trunk is an early form of ridicule you anywhere on the web observations that. ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article modifying the size of Indian... 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